Category: Blog

Sleep coaching – the next big thing

Having a diverse set of skills and a broad knowledge base is becoming increasingly important to those hoping to succeed as a personal trainer. As consumers’ focus switches to whole-person health, areas such as sleep and sleep recovery will become just as important as providing clients with the right exercise regime. 

Diversification has become a key consideration for all fitness professionals. Being able to offer more than “just exercise” could mean the difference between success and failure in an age where an explosion of at-home exercise opportunities – coupled with wearables, fitness trackers and wellness apps – have transformed the traditional gym sector. 

Personal trainers can no longer purely rely on their prowess in strength and conditioning coaching or their knowledge of physiology. Sleep – and sleep recovery in particular – for example, are areas in which consumer demand is growing rapidly. 

To provide personal trainers, wellness professionals and performance coaches with the skills needed to assist with sleep recovery, Nordic Fitness Education (NFE) has developed a unique course. The online-based Sleep Recovery Specialist course provides essential foundational knowledge, sleep assessment tools, and a wide range of effective strategies for coaching clients to improve their sleep-related behaviours and routines. 

One of the coaches to have completed the course recently is Barry Bridges, a sport scientist and qualified personal trainer based in Cape Town, South Africa. We spoke to Barry to find out how NFE’s sleep course has transformed his business.

How long have you been working in fitness/wellness? 

For around 15 years. My background is in sports science and is a mixture of practical experience and academic work. I’ve mainly worked in corporate wellness and in professional sports, from helping professional golfers with their fitness to performance coaching of esports athletes. 

What attracted you to enrol on the Sleep Recovery Specialist course?

I had previously completed a Sleep Science Coach Certification and was looking to further my knowledge – and that’s when I came across Nordic Fitness Education. I spoke to Ben Pratt and he took me through the curriculum and explained to me in great detail what the course offered. 

The subjects and topics – from sleep physiology and analysis to sleep strategies – were eye-catching and I felt that the course offered just what I was looking for. I liked the fact that I didn’t really know a lot about some of the topics, as it would mean that I would be expanding my knowledge base. 

What skills/knowledge, in particular, were you looking to acquire/improve by enrolling on the course?

One area was definitely to get more information on chronotype and sleep analysis. I was keen on those because I wanted to improve my skills in sleep assessments. My previous sleep training with another provider didn’t cover assessments that thoroughly. NFE offered much more in this area – and it’s all based on science. 

Do you feel that the course was successful in equipping you with those?

Definitely. I think the course syllabus and the way the NFE break down each subject matter makes it easy for people to understand and learn – whether they come from a scientific background or not. 

The course also included practical aspects with everything backed up with theory. I love having both the practical and the theory. It’s the same with my career – my practical experience is important for doing my job, but I also want a qualification or certification which shows that I know what I’m doing.

What were the most useful learnings you have gained from the course?

I’m constantly using the knowledge the course gave me around sleep assessments. I also really like the personal touch of having a sleep diary. I’m also utilising what I’ve learnt around different sleep analysis – in particular how to capture data and the understanding of the data offered by different wearable devices. 

I also learnt a lot on the sleep physiology side – especially when it comes to the different chronotypes – and also about the different sleep recovery methodologies. What I liked was that the learning was also backed with a lot of data and scientific information. 

Was the course what you expected? Any surprises on the way?

Yes, absolutely. I’d give the course an overall mark of 5/5, because it covered all aspects – from the science of sleep to the practical applications of each subject. This makes it perfect for both those who already might have scientific knowledge about sleep, as well as who don’t. 

As for surprises, the final case study was a bit of a surprise and really tested the knowledge the students have acquired! 

What was, for you, the most positive aspect of the course?

I’d say the content of the course and the flow of each subject. The lecturing from the tutor, Ben, made it quite easy to understand and there was quite an easy flow with each subject matter. This meant that you weren’t ever lost on the journey and he took you through the different sections. 

There are around six sections on the course and it all builds up nicely as you go. You start by learning what the problems of sleep are, move on to the science of sleep physiology and then learn about the practical suggestions. 

How did you find the online learning experience?

It worked perfectly. The course materials were easy to access and read and if I ever struggled with anything, the tutors would give me feedback. The course materials – such as the sleep assessments – were nicely laid out too. 

What also impressed me was that everything had been thought about from a technical point of view. For example, there are some expert interviews you could tune into, but if for some reason you missed them, you could access a breakdown of them as a written document. 

Would you recommend the course to others – and if so, why?

I would definitely recommend it to anyone in the personal training space or those working as life or wellness coaches. It’s also very useful for those working in areas to do with strength and conditioning and high performance. 

I think the key thing is that it gives you a really big market to tap into. More and more people are now aware of the benefits of sleep – not least because of the global pandemic. 

From a business point of view, I think it is a great way for personal trainers to diversify. It adds another string to their bow, whether they want to add it to their existing services or specialise as a sleep coach and target a specific market, such as corporations or professional sports teams.

Sleep and sleep science is a field that will continue to grow and I genuinely believe that having expertise in this area could offer unlimited earning potential. The demand for sleep coaches is growing and, at the moment, there aren’t that many of us. If you do a Google search on nutrition coaches, strength and conditioning experts or sports scientists and you get thousands of hits. Not so for sleep coaches. 

Has the course enabled you to offer services you weren’t able to before?

Definitely, it has given me additional tools and learning which support my existing skills. I now have my own website ( and I’m specialising as a sleep and recovery coach. 

I think there will be a big drive towards sleep coaching over the next year and we will see sleep coaches in all types of areas…especially those related to elite performance.

What was your impression of Nordic Fitness Education as a training provider?

Very good. I’m very big on accreditation processes, so the course being accredited with eREPs was a big thing. It was also obvious that all the learning was backed up with the latest scientific literature regarding sleep science. 

Want to add another string to your bow and take your PT offering (and career) to the next level? Find out how you can train up to become a Sleep Recovery Specialist with an eREPS accredited course by clicking here:

Everything was run very professionally and the tutor, Ben, was always extremely helpful with any queries.

Don’t just take our word for it, our courses are for everyone

Our Nordic Personal Trainer course, delivered totally online, is suitable for people from all walks of life, and we are extremely proud that we have a diverse range of personal trainer graduates.

Whether you want to make it your full-time career, gain a qualification to fall back on later in life or you’re just seeking to build your understanding of health, fitness, nutrition and training – the course provides you with all of the tools, knowledge and expertise to achieve your goal.

Watch the video below as we caught up with some of our personal trainer graduates to find out about their NPTC experience. We invite you to find out more about our Nordic Personal Trainer Certificate.

I trained as a sleep recovery specialist – now I train up to 400 people at a time

The increased focus on whole-person health among consumers has given rise to a new appreciation for all things sleep. PTs who are prepared to invest a bit of time and effort in adding sleep recovery to their skillset could soon see a huge return on that investment.

Workplace wellbeing specialist Mandy Bisson recently completed Nordic Fitness Education’s (NFE) Sleep Recovery Specialist course. Mandy was looking to add to her knowledge in the wellness space, as her background already blended a career in corporate and business unit strategic planning with niche experience in workplace wellbeing.

Having worked with organisations of all sizes, she had helped build and implement effective wellbeing strategies that delivered results – for both businesses and the people within them. The strategies she has created have driven sustainable high performance – through happier, healthier, more productive and more engaged employees – and also linked to bottom-line results.

Mandy wanted to further expand her knowledge base. This led her to enrol on the sleep recovery course, which has added an important element to the wellness expertise she is able to draw from – corporate sleep webinars. We spoke to Mandy about her experiences regarding the course.

Interview with Mandy

What attracted you to enrol on the Sleep Recovery Specialist course?

I know how important sleep is to overall health, and see the pillars of sleep/nutrition/movement/stress as completely intertwined. Sleep is a real issue for people with stressful corporate jobs, so I knew there would be a demand for knowledge in that space.

What knowledge, in particular, were you looking to acquire by enrolling on the course?

Understanding the science behind sleep and finding a way to apply it in a practical way

Do you feel that the course was successful in equipping you with that?

Yes! The combination of content/assessments and analysis/questionnaires was good, I feel I can speak with credibility now. And when I add the qualification I received from the course to the large amount of reading I have done around the topic, I feel confident and comfortable leading sleep training and coaching sessions with people across organisations – including executive members.

What other useful learnings did you gain from the course?

One that springs to mind is how to assess – and then tailor – strategies to the individual.

How have you utilised the skills you’ve learnt during the course?

I now deliver 60-minute corporate sleep webinars to employees in organisations. The webinars can have anything from four to 400 people on them! When we can resume work in offices, I will probably run similar sessions, but face-to-face. I also deliver sleep coaching to individuals.

Was the course what you expected? Any surprises on the way?

It was as I expected, I think! The instant access to the course tutor, Ben, to ask questions was better than I expected (and his response times were very quick).

What was, for you, the most positive aspect of the course?

The flexible way of learning and the balance of science vs. practical application.

How did you find the online learning experience – and have you done online courses before?

I studied a diploma in nutrition for a year, so was used to online learning. It works well for me as a busy mum of two boys (plus two labradors), a house and work to juggle. The flexibility offered by being able to study when it suited me – and around family life – was key.

Would you recommend the course to others – and if so, why?

Yes, I would definitely recommend it to others, as it provides a great foundation to understand the principles of sleep and how to structure coaching sessions with clients. The example questionnaires and assessments to use with clients are really useful too.

What was your impression of Nordic Fitness Education as a training provider?

They were great in terms of ease of access, flexibility, support and value for money – I would recommend them to others!

Take your PT offering and career to the next by training as a Sleep Recovery Specialist, or follow the link below:


5 top online personal trainer courses in Europe

Online education has developed significantly over the last 10 years to the point where it is now possible to get a strong education in vocational and practical skills through the online / e-learning world. However, the online space also offers low-cost, low-quality fitness education. It is essential to do your research and ensure you are clear on what are the key factors to look out for before parting with your hard-earned cash and investing valuable study time to get certified. In this blog, we will make it 100% clear what will help you identify the better quality online personal trainer courses in Europe. We will even provide you with an overview of 5 top online course options.

Fitness in Europe

Personal training and fitness instruction are very popular professions that provide high levels of job satisfaction. Up to 74% of personal trainers stated they were very satisfied with their jobs, according to a recent report. The strong and ever-growing European fitness industry is now valued at €28.2 billion. Europe has 63,644 fitness clubs amassing 64.8 million members across the continent, according to the 2020 Deloitte market report. The fitness industry is a strong vibrant market that needs committed, motivated and well-qualified fitness instructors and personal trainers to sustain its growth and longevity. Could you be part of this rewarding industry? If the answer is ‘Yes!’, then keep reading as we guide you on how to get qualified alongside your existing commitments. Let’s start by identifying some guidelines to follow when reviewing online personal trainer courses in Europe.

Online personal trainer courses: Quality guidelines

If you search the internet for ‘online personal trainer courses in Europe’ the search results will turn out literally millions of results. Behavioural studies suggest that 91% of people do not read past the first page of internet results, but usually just amend the search term instead. This means that the first page of results will be those with strong ‘search engine optimisation’ (SEO) on their website. This is not necessarily a guarantee that you have found the best quality courses in your search. We encourage a little more diligence in your research, maybe looking beyond the first page of results. We also suggest that as you thoroughly look into each training provider and that you compare your findings against the following ‘quality’ criteria.

  • Accredited/approved online courses only – this means that an independent standards organisation has reviewed the quality of the online personal training course and can verify that it reaches a specified level of quality. EuropeActive and EREP’s are the organisations with the most widely accepted professional quality standards for the fitness industry in Europe.
  • Verified independent reviews – these are genuine customer reviews provided using an independent review service e.g. Trustpilot, Yelp, or Google reviews. Reading past performance and experience from students who took the course can help to reassure you before purchase. Student testimonials included directly within a website can easily be selected to only show the best feedback, ignoring any negative comments. An independent review service will showcase all feedback, both critical and praiseworthy.
  • Course content and assessment clearly explained – a company who is confident of their quality and materials will be transparent about the subject matter they cover and the methodology of the assessments used within the course to test and check student knowledge and skill development.
  • Course duration – in simple terms quicker is not always better when it comes to educational quality. Some courses may offer unlimited time to completion. This is not always desirable, especially as online education already requires a higher degree of self-discipline. Without time restrictions it is all too easy to put off study to another day and before you know it days become weeks, weeks become months and the course doesn’t get completed. We recommended that you choose a course with a specified time limit to encourage proactive learning, but enough leeway to allow you to adapt to your personal circumstances.
  • Check for course pre-requisites – this is a list of essential items or previous education that must be in place prior to being able to take the course. Some personal trainer courses may appear cheaper, but on further investigation, they have previous, and sometimes substantial, requirements to be eligible for registration.
  • Tutor support – not all online personal trainer courses offer expert tutor support. Most will offer some level of support, but be thorough to check what this is. Ideally, support should be available from a qualified and experienced personal training tutor, not just from the customer service team. Live support may come in the form of emails, messaging services, phone calls, or even video calls with a real tutor in order to provide the best support to your learning experience.
  • Price – the cost of a course is an important factor that cannot be ignored. It would a fair generalisation that in education you often receive back what you invest. Lower priced courses usually offer a reduced service level to justify the reduced cost. Often, though not always, higher-priced courses offer a higher level of service and quality as a reflection of the higher fee. Our advice is to seek for the best quality product and service that you can afford within your budget. If you are attracted by a low-cost course, double-check they meet the quality criteria listed above. If they do not meet the criteria, be sure you are willing to accept the reduction in service level before you purchase.

5 online personal trainer courses in Europe

Online courses can offer several benefits that make it an attractive option for learning new skills such as:

  • No physical class to attend and thus no specific geographical location required for study – access available wherever there is an internet connection.
  • The course timetable is usually adaptable to your personal daily schedule and can fit around your needs.
  • Lessons are available to watch/read multiple times if needed.
  • Course content can leverage many helpful digital features that can make the learning process more effective than the traditional live classroom model.

We have done the research and identified 5 online personal trainer courses in Europe that you may wish to review to determine which works best for you. It is important to note that these courses are those that offer all their education through e-learning, there is no face-to-face, in-person classes or another blended form of learning required. Some do require attendance at a specific venue for the final course assessments, but not for the learning process. Let’s begin with the comparison table that reviews the main items.

top-online-personal-training courses-Europe-comparison-table
Comparison of online PT courses in Europe (Open image in new tab to Zoom)

Nordic Fitness Education


NFE offers a 100% fully online programme through their Nordic Personal Trainer Certificate. The programme of study is all in English and requires a minimum of 4 terms of study, totalling 24 weeks. During this time the learner is required to complete 6 modules and a voluntary fitness internship, totalling 290 hours of study. The course has been independently accredited and graduates are registered as Level 4 personal trainers on the European Register of Exercise Professionals (EREP’s). Importantly the course also includes the Level 3 Fitness instructor standards. Previously unqualified individuals can start their journey to becoming a fitness professional with NFE and be confident both the Level 3 and 4 professional standards are included.

NFE state that students will always have access to an assigned personal tutor in every module who is available to support your education and grade all the assessments. NFE charge a moderate price for the higher level of support and service on offer. They offer a monthly payment plan to help spread the cost. NFE also have a very high, independent student rating to show that their graduates are very pleased with the more personal, higher service level provided.



Origym is a well-established educator that delivers fitness instructor and personal trainer courses across the UK and Ireland. They offer most of their courses in a blended learning format, but they do also offer a distance learning option through their online PT certificate. Origym courses are accredited by the NCFE in the UK and EREP’s across Europe. In order to be eligible for the personal trainer course, it is essential that students are already fitness instructor certified. These essential requirements are not included in the low-priced Origym personal trainer course. They offer flexible payment plans to help spread the cost. Origym offers all their learning through their e-learning platform. The final theory exam and practical assessments must be taken at one of their specified physical locations across the UK or Ireland. This may be a problem for international students outside of these two countries.

DS Personal Training School


DS PT school offer an online distance learning personal trainer course option for Swedish speaking individuals. The course is delivered online, with the final assessments requiring attendance at one of their 4 specified venues across Sweden. They are clearly focused on serving the Swedish fitness market. The course appears to be thoroughly assessed which is usually a good sign of quality standards. It is accredited by EREP’s as well to provide an additional sign of reaching an independently approved standard.

DS PT school provide a summary list of the subject matter that they cover on the course. However, little mention is made on the website of how long the course takes, nor the level of support that is offered by the tutor team. The tutor team credentials are available to review. DS PT school is the most expensive option of the 5 courses we reviewed, but they do offer a payment instalment plan to help spread the cost.

Intensive PT


Intensive PT is a rapidly expanding Swedish company that now offers an ‘International’ online personal training course. This appears to mean that a version of their established Swedish language PT course has been translated and is now available in English as an online distance learning option. The course has been independently verified and graduates are eligible for registration with EREP’s. The Swedish site identifies all the tutor team with a short biography of their qualifications, but this is not present on the online, distance learning site. The level of tutor support for the online course is not clarified and may need to be established through communication with Intensive PT directly.

The course details state that there are no time limits on the study period. Students are allowed to progress entirely at their own pace. This may work for the truly self-motivated student, but maybe a factor to consider if you need more encouragement and accountability to complete your learning journey.

Online Trainer Lizenz


Online Trainer Lizenz is a German branded company that is focusing purely on the German online personal trainer market. They have expanded rapidly and taught 1000’s of students to date. This is a sign of their successful marketing and effective educational product that they offer in their Fitness Trainer A license. The course is specifically for the German market, only available in the German language. They only have educational endorsements from German standards of recognition in ZFU and TUV-SUD.

The website indicates the course is on par with the Level 4 European Qualification Framework, but they do not currently hold EREP’s professional approval for the fitness industry. OTL have a very high approval rate on their independent reviews. This is a reliable indicator that customers are happy with this lower-cost product. It is clear that Online Trainer Lizenz has positioned themselves in a more budget price bracket with a reduced service level compared to other education providers. But several signs show they are offering good value for the price and keeping their customers satisfied.


We have only highlighted 5 of the more prominent online personal trainer courses in Europe in this blog (as of Jan 21). The fitness education industry is developing all the time. Training providers continue to improve their product offerings and release new course options. In time there will likely be more choice. You may find through your own research that other training providers offer a suitable online personal training course in your country and language. By all means, if you have checked these courses against the quality criteria above and you are happy with what you have found then, by all means, get registered and get qualified. There is a vibrant fitness industry waiting to receive you!


Should you get your Vitamin D from sunlight or diet?


The question

Vitamin D is absolutely integral to human health! This vital ‘nutrient’ provides many benefits to the body. Even though we still refer to it as a vitamin or a nutrient, the vast majority (approximately 90%) of active vitamin D3 in the body is produced when our skin is exposed to sunlight. So that’s it then, we should get our vitamin D from sunlight, debate over! Not so fast! This topic is a little more nuanced than that. Sufficient, effective sun exposure on a regular basis can be tricky to achieve. It is certainly possible to consume vitamin D from the diet, but there are only a very limited number of food sources that contain sufficient amounts to meet daily requirements. As a result of these 2 key issues, it is now estimated that 40-75% of the world’s population is vitamin D deficient! (1) That´s right – you could be one of the 7 out of 10 people with low vitamin D, so read on to learn how to resolve this. 

Functions of vitamin D

Firstly why do we need vitamin D? Scientific studies have shown that vitamin D is needed for and supports a wide range of health-related functions: (2)

  • Necessary for bone strength by aiding the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium to lay down new bone tissue
  • Helps to regulate vascular health and may positively influence blood pressure
  • Stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas and may reduce diabetes
  • Supports both infectious and inflammatory immune system response
  • Potent antioxidant properties with some research suggesting potential for anticarcinogenic properties and reduced cancer mortality
  • Supports oestrogen production, may help to regulate the menstrual cycle and reduce symptoms of PMT
  • Has beneficial effects on the brain and may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia

Vitamin D from sunlight

If sunlight exposure is the primary method of receiving up to 90% of this incredibly important nutrient, then we really should understand more about the complex relationship between sunlight and human exposure.

Standing outside on a bright sunny day, feeling the warmth of the sun on your skin, is a prized experience in the colder climates both north and south of the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, especially after a long winter season. Whereas for those living in the relentless heat of the tropical zones, it is an ongoing, daily battle to keep cool and avoid sunburn with much less fluctuation across the seasons!

Exposure to the rays of the sun (UVB wavelength) is known to help generate vitamin D through the conversion of a naturally occurring precursor under the skin called 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). This is converted into pre-vitamin D3, which is then rearranged into the active form of vitamin D3.

The standard guidelines indicate that the body needs a minimum of 20-25 mcg or 800-1000 IU of vitamin D per day. Although, it must be noted that reaching this minimal nutrient status is a different matter to preventing all adverse effects from insufficent vitamin D. A group of scientists in the vitamin D research community are advocating a daily requirement 4 times higher at 4000 IU per day to ensure optimal health effects (1). However, reaching this level of vitamin D from sunlight alone on a hot summer’s day would likely lead to sunburn for lighter skinned people.

Sunlight stimulates the conversion to vitamin D3

How much vitamin D is actually produced when the skin is exposed to sunlight depends upon a range of factors, including:

  • Time of day
  • Season of the year
  • Geographical latitude
  • Altitude
  • Length of sunlight exposure
  • How much skin is directly exposed to the sun
  • The colour or pigmentation of the skin

Time and season

Both the time of day and the season of the year make a difference to our ability to get vitamin D from sunlight exposure. This is related to the angle of the sun’s UV rays passing through the earth’s atmosphere and also the proximity of our geographical location on the globe to the sun itself.

The changing path of the sun in the sky throughout a day

In the early morning and late evening, the suns rays shine upon us at a sharper angle, causing them to pass through a greater distance of the earth’s atmosphere. The atmosphere helps filter the suns rays reducing Ultraviolet intensity (UVI). Lower UVI at these times of day means less conversion of 7-DHC to active vitamin D3 as well as less chance of sunburn. Conversely, the higher the sun is in the sky, the more direct the sun’s rays are in relation to our location. This means less distance to pass through the atmosphere, higher UVI and more rapid conversion of 7-DHC to vitamin D3, but also a much faster sunburn time too.

The earth spins around a central axis point, however, that axis is not vertical, it sits at a titled angle of 23.5 degrees in relation to its orbit around the sun. It is this tilted axis that gives earth its annual seasons. The northern and southern hemispheres gradually change in their position to the sun, being closer in the summertime and further away in the wintertime. This change in distance between the earth’s surface and the sun alters the length of day and the peak UVI. The UVI at midday in the summer will be much higher than UVI during winter midday. As already stated a reduced UVI will affect the rate of conversion to vitamin D3. It has been well documented that vitamin D deficiency rates are higher in winter months. (3) In the temperate and frigid zones of the earth, above and below 42 degrees latitude, there will be periods during winter (approximately November to February) when it will be very difficult to convert any 7-DHC to vitamin D3 at all, due to limited UVB radiation that can reach the earth’s surface.

Sunlight exposure and UVI changes across seasons

Latitude and altitude

In addition to the time of day and season of the year, the latitude on the earth’s surface will also play a part in the angle of the sun’s rays through the atmosphere. The further north or south an individual is positioned on the planet, the more atmosphere sunlight will need to pass through and the lower the UVI will be relative to equatorial zones at the same time of year.


The ozone layer is the portion of the earth’s atmosphere that largely protects us from the strong UVB rays that cause sunburn and stimulate vitamin D conversion. Some UVB does still makes it through the ozone into the atmosphere below (troposphere). The higher the altitude above sea level, the greater the UVI will be due to the thinner atmosphere present at that location to help filter UVB rays. UVB radiation increases approximately 7% every 1000m in elevation above sea level (4). As a general rule, higher altitudes result in cooler temperatures, but conversely higher altitudes also mean a higher risk of sunburn due to increased UVB exposure. The higher UVI at altitude also speeds up the conversion process so that more vitamin D is formed in less sunlight exposure time.

Higher altitude leads to greater UVB exposure

Length of time and amount of skin exposed

Body surface areas – rule of 9’s

Regardless of the time of year or the geographical position on planet earth, the length of exposure time to the sun’s UVB rays is directly correlated to a greater opportunity to covert 7-DHC to vitamin D3. But this time of exposure for vitamin D production must be balanced carefully against the risk of burning the skin and causing damage as a result. The skin coverage of the clothing we choose to wear and the colour of an individual’s skin will also play an important part in determining the time exposed to UVB necessary to reach our daily vitamin D from sunlight requirement. The image below will provide some guidance regarding the percentage of skin exposed to sunlight based on which body parts are clothed or not.

The general guidance offered is to expose 18% of the body (face, arms and ahands) to the summer sun around mid-morning or mid-afternoon for 6-10 minutes in order to stimulate the conversion of up to 1000 IU of vitamin D. In the winter times this exposure may need to be increased up to 45 minutes. Well, at least these general guidelines apply to sub-tropical and temperate zones and lighter-skinned people. These rules will need to be adapted for hotter tropical zones and darker-skinned people.

Skin pigmentation

Fitzpatrick skin type classification

The natural pigment in human skin, called melanin, is present in varying amounts and gives rise to the different shades and colours of skin across the human population. Melanin absorbs and prevents UVB from passing through the skin layers. This helps to reduce the risk of sunburn and skin damage, but it also means that less vitamin D from sunlight is produced under the skin of those with higher melanin levels. There are 6 types according to the Fitzpatrick skin type categories. Type 1 is the lightest skin through to type 6 the darkest pigmentation. It is estimated that darker-skinned people may require 3-6 times longer sun exposure to produce the same relative vitamin D as lighter-skinned individuals.

Dietary vitamin D

So where does dietary vitamin D fit in after this extensive focus on sunlight exposure and all its compounding variables? Firstly, it should be quite obvious that getting enough vitamin D from the sun during the warmer summer months should be relatively easy to achieve with daily, fairly short outdoor sun exposure, even for those with darker skin. The summer is the least likely time to experience vitamin D deficiency.

It is the winter season when dietary sources of vitamin D become a very important contributor to maintaining our levels of this beneficial nutrient. The increased risk of vitamin D winter deficiency can be offset by carefully planning some simple inclusions in your diet. This is especially important for those living in the temperate and frigid zones, above and below 42 degrees latitude north or south.

Tropical, Temperate, and Frigid Zones on Earth

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient, meaning it is only available within naturally occurring foods that have sufficient amounts of fat contained within them. The richest sources being primarily from fish and shellfish. Some food sources may be fortified with vitamin D (synthetic form added), but keep an eye out for the addition of the less effective, cheaper vitamin D2 form, instead of the more beneficial active vitamin D3 form.

Top 10 naturally occurring food sources of Vitamin D

Cod liver oil has been used as a nutritional supplement for hundreds of years, especially in the colder, temperate countries in the northern hemisphere. Whilst science now understands the benefits of omega 3 fats and vitamin D, perhaps traditional wisdom had worked out there was something good in this particular oil that helped them weather the physically challenging winter months a little better. Cod liver oil is a food ‘supplement’ and whilst it is the richest source per 100g, it will usually only be consumed 1-2 tablespoons (15-30ml) per day. This small amount will still deliver 1500-3000 IU so is a useful additional source of vitamin D.

A few commonly consumed foods, not sourced from the oceans, that provide smaller amounts of vitamin D include egg yolks (2.6 mcg/100g), butter (1.4 mcg/100g), and beef liver (1.1 mcg/100g). These fatty, naturally occurring foods will help contribute small, but beneficial amounts to our personal vitamin D reservoir during the short days and longer nights of winter.

If the above foods are difficult to source or just not to your taste preferences, then the use of supplementation may be warranted during winter months. In 2011 researchers at Bastyr University in California ran a study comparing vitamin D3 supplementation in 3 different forms; oil drops, capsules or chewable tablets. They showed that when taking high doses of 10,000 IU (250 mcg) of vitamin D3 daily for 12 weeks, all 3 forms proved to be both safe and effective, and significantly increased levels in the blood (6). The recommended daily intake varies depending upon the organisation you choose to rely upon from 1000 IU (25 mcg) to 4000 IU (100 mcg) per day.

Conclusion: Vitamin D from sunlight or diet

So as it turns out, it is not a matter of sunlight versus diet in the vitamin D stakes. Both have their place throughout the seasons of the year. When the sun does makes an appearance during the spring, summer, and autumn seasons we should seek to enjoy some regular exposure on our skin to allow for natural vitamin D formation. Not only it is good for our biology, it is also good for the mind and emotions to get outside and bathe in sunlight. If we get sufficient sunlight during the warmer months, supplementation will not be necessary at that time of year.

  • Between 6-20 minutes of summer sunlight for skin types 1 – 3, between 20-45 minutes for skin types 4 – 6 of summer sunlight – the variation will depend on the time of day, season, temperature, latitude, and altitude.
  • 18% (face, hands and arms) to 36% (face, hands, arms & legs) of the skin’s surface should be exposed to sunlight.
  • Sunlight for vitamin D should not be hindered by sunscreen, which potentially blocks the UVB rays we need to facilitate vitamin D conversion.
  • If your shadow is longer than you are tall, then the UVI is lower and slightly longer time in the sun will be required, if your shadow is shorter than you are tall then UVI is higher and shorter times in the sun are advised.
  • Sun exposure to get sufficient vitamin D will not require any reddening or burning of the skin.
  • If exposure to the sun will go beyond the individualised time limit for optimal vitamin D, then it would be appropriate to cover the body with clothing or to utilise a thorough covering of sunscreen to prevent sunburn.

During the winter months when sunlight is rare, we must then become more dependent upon natural dietary sources of vitamin D from cod liver oil, fish and seafood. If this is not practical and you want to be certain, then also including a good quality vitamin D3 supplement to ensure our physiological needs are met may be an important strategy during the colder months of the year.








If you enjoyed reading this blog or have your own thoughts or opinions on the subject, then please comment below. Please visit our blog archive for more great reads. You may also want to watch some of the expert interviews via the Fit to Succeed podcast.


Big News! Accredited fitness education online

We are very pleased to announce that our 5-star rated, online personal training course has now been recognised by the international fitness standards organisation, Europe Active! We can now state with some pleasure that we offer professionally accredited fitness education.


In fact, we are the very first training provider across all of Europe to successfully demonstrate that we can meet all the rigorous theoretical, practical, and assessment standards required by Europe Active through the use of a purely online learning model of delivery. By developing innovative online learning together with expert, personal tutors supporting our students, we have finally cracked it! We were able to build upon the earlier success of our parent company, Keilir Academy, who received Europe Active accreditation in 2017 for their blended learning, online/face-to-face IAK personal trainer certification programme.

Europe Active Accredited PT course standards

It has taken a huge amount of work to break this new ground, as Europe Active, quite rightly, wanted to be sure that students taking our personal training course were not at any disadvantage compared to those who choose a more typical face-to-face learning approach. The Nordic Personal Training Certificate offers an exceptional opportunity to become a skilled, internationally recognised fitness professional regardless of your location across Europe. This is especially helpful to those who live outside of the big cities and towns who may have found it difficult to attend a face-to-face training course, where the majority of training providers within the fitness industry are located. We are proud to have proven beyond any doubt that we provide a truly effective learning journey for our current and future students who embark on our accredited fitness education.

Approved EREPs logo

All our Nordic Personal Training Certificate graduates are now eligible to be registered on the European Register of Exercise Professionals (EREP’s). This provides each graduate with professional recognition for their personal training certification across numerous European states and with each of the EREP’s national partners, which includes REP’s organisations in Russia, Australia, the United States, India, and the Middle East.

EREPs courses by country March 2020

Find out more about our high quality, accredited fitness education and online personal trainer course by visiting the NPTC course page.

Did you know, 74% of PT’s rate their job as highly satisfying? Start your journey to become a personal trainer and experience a job that you enjoy every day.

Read all our independent reviews from certified students on TrustPilot.


Top 3 Principles to become a successful online student


Whilst taking an online course can be a great idea, becoming a successful online student may require a little more self-discipline and self-organisation than working as a student in a live, in-person learning environment. In this blog, we highlight the 3 primary principles and a range of important habits associated with successfully achieving within an online learning environment. 

Principle 1: Motive

The first and foremost principle for success on any course of study is to leverage a proper motive to learn. It is possible to find a true motive in a wide range of ideas and rationale, but when there is a key personal driver that underpins a choice to further your education this can really help. Try to find value in the current topic you are learning and why it matters and applies to you personally. Write down a clear ‘big-picture’ goal that creates a passion and determination to achieve each time it is viewed can help provide a real kick any time you find motivation waning. Chart your successes, no matter how small. Record each time you master a new concept or pass a short online quiz. It is important to see how far you have come as well as the remaining work required. Many online learning platforms may well provide clear tracking of completion and assessment successes to help you see your achievements. 4 motive-related habits to develop are:

  • Find personal value in what you are currently learning
  • Set your goal to mastering the content and skills
  • Take daily steps that create self-belief in your ability to learn
  • Feel the challenge of success, not the fear of failure

Principle 2: Opportunity

A big part of being successful in education is to ensure that you can carve out the necessary opportunity, to begin with. Being able to assess your own time availability, current commitments, stress levels, and willpower is an important part of being successful. You may well have the ability to learn and develop new skills, but if life is too busy, you have over-committed yourself, or you are under huge stress, no amount of inherent learning skill will make up for a lack of opportunity to actually invest in education in the first place. Understanding your own learning style and pace of learning is also helpful. An online module may recommend 50 hours of learning for a typical student, but if you know you from past experience that you take 10-20% more time to absorb the knowledge and master the skills, then it is important to account for this in your personal scheduling of time.

Prioritizing study time to be fixed at a time of day with minimal distraction is important. As online study is completed on a computer, tablet or phone, this can mean that you may be open to receive messages, emails, and social media notifications that can easily side-track your focus on a regular basis. Research has shown that for every distraction that pulls you away from a learning task, it takes even more time to then switch back and re-focus again on the learning material. Many modern computers/devices may have a ‘focus-assist’ setting which blocks notifications and messages to minimise unwanted distractions during a study period. Television should be off and mobile phones switched to ‘Do not disturb’ to allow better focus on coursework in order to be a successful online student.

Learning tends to be more successful when spread out over several shorter sessions, rather than one very long, intense session. Whilst some people feel they are highly focused and can get in the ‘zone’ for long study sessions, research has shown that up to 90% of the content from a very long study session can be dimmed from memory within the next 7 days. Shorter 20-40 minute topical sessions can be more effective at improving longer-term memory of the information learned.

Scientific research has also shown that stress is the thief of memory, so look to ensure that you are not feeling stressed or under pressure when trying to learn information. Perhaps a reason why last-minute ‘cramming’ is not always a very successful approach to learning. 4 habits to maximise the opportunity to learn are:

  • Create and plan for a clear time to learn
  • Space out study time across several shorter sessions
  • Protect your study time and take measures to avoid distractions
  • Clear your mind of stress and worry beforehand

Principle 3: Means

Once motivation is in place, and learning opportunities have been planned and created, it is then important to ensure you provide the means for learning to take place by understanding effective learning methods. A good online learning course should be structured in such a way as to already provide many of the varied means to support your learning preferences. Good online learning should include visual, auditory and kinesthetic methods, such as video, audio, reading, writing, software interaction, problem-solving, physical practice, self-testing, quizzing etc. However, the student can take many steps themselves to help improve their chances of learning and understanding course materials. The following 8 habits may really help to improve student actions to maximise online learning:

  • Re-watch or re-read material that needs clarification if not fully understood the first time
  • Highlight course notes or summarise the main points as a first step to learning the content
  • Create brief revision flashcards to self-test and review key concepts
  • Record key content in your own words to help translate information into more familiar language and terminology 
  • Create visual knowledge maps or drawings to help condense information and enhance visual memory recall
  • Explain freshly learned content to someone else and have them restate what you taught – check against notes/course content for accuracy
  • Record yourself explaining the learning content to camera or over audio then listen back for accuracy checked against notes or course materials
  • Where appropriate engage in practical, hands-on activities and tasks to improve learning through kinesthetic means. 

Conclusion: Being a successful online student

These 3 primary principles of learning can provide a solid foundation upon which to build effective learning processes and improve your educational journey. However, take note, that education is really a personal journey of self-development in line with a guided curriculum. You may discover your own preferred learning approaches that help you to become a highly successful online student. 

Happy studying online!


To read more on this subject and benefit from 20 learning habits you may wish to read the book How to be a Successful Student by Professor Richard E. Mayer. 

To learn more about our excellent online fitness education courses, please browse our courses menu, including our accredited personal trainer course.


In defence of processed food – It’s not that bad!

In defence of processed food blog


The inclusion of processed food in our diets has for many years been commonplace. In the United States research has shown that more than 60% of the daily diet[1] comes from highly processed foods. In European countries, the figure is also quite high, particularly in The United Kingdom where 50% of household foods are highly processed, and also in Germany where highly processed foods comprise up to 46% daily intake[2]. It should be noted that some European countries, like Italy and Portugal, consume much less at only 15% highly processed foods.

Is the inclusion of these high levels of processed food in the modern diet a significant problem to our overall health? Should we remove all processed foods and turn to a natural, unadulterated, real food diet? Would that resolve our modern health crisis? Human beings seem to love contrasting information as a means of creating a powerful statement or highlighting a concern. Contrasting creates an apparent black and white scenario, associating facts that are usually unfairly compared. This is often the case in relation to food and diet, where the common sharing of opposing, contrasting positions is used to create shock value and fear. Food and dietary intake are rarely black and white. They are usually varying shades of grey. Let’s investigate this important contrast further.

What is processed food?

Food processing has been defined as ‘any method used to turn fresh foods into food products’[3]Even this basic definition would indicate that food processing occurs at home in our own kitchens with even the most naturally produced, raw, whole foods. Processing food is an everyday requirement for turning basic ingredients into an enjoyable meal or snack. However, there is a difference between home-prepared food and industrial food preparation.

The general public appears to correctly understand that there is a sliding scale with regards to industrial food processing, and it appears there is a prevailing belief that the more processed our food is the lower its nutritional value upon consumption[4]. The following table defines a range of the most common food processing methods and the primary purpose of applying each within an industrial setting.


The purpose of food processing

As strange as it may sound there are some genuine and appropriate reasons for allowing foods to go through factory processing. It really is not all bad. The primary purposes of food processing can be summed up in this shortlist:

  1. Increase palatability, digestibility, appearance, taste or smell
  2. Preserve or improve the nutritional value
  3. Improve food safety by reducing harmful organisms
  4. Food preservation and maintain food qualities
  5. Extend shelf life and lengthen food transportation options

Perhaps one of the most important reasons listed above is the need for food producers to extend shelf life and to preserve foods in a safe and edible state. By ensuring that this happens effectively food companies can increase their sales and reduce their food wastage, simply due to slower food spoilage providing a greater window of time for transportation and for a consumer to purchase it. It also means that food lasts longer in the consumer’s cupboards after purchase and can contribute to their nutritional needs over days, weeks or months depending on the recommended storage length.

However, this desirable benefit of longer shelf life is constantly being weighed up against the current negative perception of nutritional damage and the inclusion of undesirable food additives in processed foods. This is the healthy consumer’s modern dilemma! But is it as simple as minimising processed food, and eating more unprocessed, whole foods to guarantee better nutritional sufficiency? It certainly sounds good in principle, but does this mentality stack up under closer investigation?

Nutritional value of processed foods

Scientific research on the impact of processed food on its nutrient density has been very well established. Therefore, it stands to reason that modern Western diets would be nutritionally depleted as a result of such high intake of ultra-processed foods. A recent population-wide study confirms the impact that high consumption of processed foods has on the overall nutritional density of the diet[5]. The study established that the average dietary content of protein, fibre, vitamins A, C, D, and E, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium in the US diet decreased significantly as the energy contribution from ultra-processed foods increased. Unfortunately, they also noted that total carbohydrate intake, added refined sugar, and saturated fat in the diet increased as a direct effect of more processed food consumption. These specifically add more nutritionally depleted calories to the diet, increasing the risk of obesity.

In addition to establishing the nutritional deficiency of a highly processed foods diet, another recent study[6] clearly showed the powerful impact that a processed foods diet can have upon appetite, food intake, and the resulting likelihood for weight gain. The meals presented to the subjects during the study period were matched for calories, energy density, macronutrients, sugar, sodium and fibre. However, they were instructed to eat as much or as little as they wished during each 2-week period of the crossover trial. As it turned out, energy intake was greater by an average of 508 kcals per day during the period when subjects ate the highly processed food diet in comparison to when the same subjects ate the whole, unprocessed food diet. Weight gain also changed in direct association with the dietary variation and the energy intake changes. It appears that eating nutritionally poor, processed food increased the biological drive to consume more calories in the search for the missing nutrients, despite there being an abundance of energy consumed.

Processed food categorisation

It is important to note that the studies explained above were carried out on a category known as ultra-processed foods. This opens the question as to the nutritional impact of lesser methods of food processing and how do we categorise these. The University of Sao Paulo in Brazil created a categorisation system based on the level of processing of different foods, known as the NOVA food classification system[7]. The table below outlines how processed foods can be successfully categorised using this recognised system.


Nutrient comparisons of NOVA foods

To help highlight the point about the level of food processing and the nutritional content of food, please refer to the randomly selected examples below to see how much of a difference food processing makes to the nutritional value of food. The comparisons include group 1, 2, 3 and 4 foods from the NOVA food categories described above.  It is important to note that the following food and nutrient analyses may not be representative of all foods that fall within a specific NOVA processed food category, they are just examples for illustrative purposes.

Colour key in nutritional tables:
Green highlighted row: Higher nutritional content
Grey highlighted row: same nutritional content
Group 1 Raw versus frozen peas - nutrient table
Group 2 coconut oil versus raw coconut flesh - nutrient table
Group 3 Canned peaches versus raw peaches - nutrient table
Group 4 White bread versus whole grain bread- nutrient table

Defending against nutritional decline

The examples above show that processed food categories 2, 3 and 4, show a significant reduction in the nutritional value of the food product when compared to a similar, unprocessed option. Category 1, minimally processed food, did show a reduction in nutritional value compared to the unprocessed option, but it was only minor, and the resulting food product still delivered a substantial nutritional punch.

It is likely that other processed foods may show greater or lesser nutritional reductions within each NOVA category compared to the examples shown above. Just because a food has undergone industrial processing does not mean that the food should be completely discounted in terms of its nutritional contribution. We must acknowledge that ultra-processed foods do still provide a level of nutritional value to somewhat justify their inclusion in modern diets, although in most cases, nutrient levels are substantially diminished compared to a similar unprocessed or minimally processed parent food. So, there is usually a preferred or better option to consume to help promote human health than ultra-processed foods.

To finish up this discussion, here are 3 important takeaway messages:

  1. Basic food processing helps to increase shelf life, reduces food spoilage, and helps to increase the range and availability of many foods.
  2. Minimally processed foods still offer some of the benefits of food processing, while still retaining a significant proportion of the original nutritional value of the food.
  3. Ultra-processed foods should, ideally, be reduced and avoided where possible due to the significant reduction in nutritional value, the increased calorie density, and the increased presence of non-nutritive food additives.

A side note on food additives

It is important to note that processed and ultra-processed foods are more likely to contain both artificial and/or natural food additives, and other food-like ingredients to deliver the manufacturers intended taste, texture, smell, colour etc.[8] It is fair to say that food additives have received a lot of negative attention over the years. Perhaps, as a result of the more technical naming associated with additives, and a lack of understanding regarding their purpose in processed food, they tend to be poorly understood.

Over-simplified anecdotes have been re-iterated around the internet, such as, ‘If you can’t pronounce the ingredient, then don’t eat it’. Such phrases are generally unhelpful and have likely caused an over-reaction against food additives. If food experts and nutritionists are really honest about the science, the vast range of food additives (over 300 additives and 2500 flavouring agents)[9] are regulated very tightly, are utilised in very small levels, and have been deemed to be safe for human consumption within the current allowable limits. There is a small range of food additives that have come under more intense scientific scrutiny due to some negative reactions recorded within the literature, and in some cases, these are supported by reports of negative effects from the general public too.

If you are interested in digging a little deeper into the more concerning additives, then here are a few suggestions that may be worth a little more investigation.

  • Artificial colours: Hyperactivity in children is a potential side-effect for the following food colours – E102, E104, E110, E122, E124, & E129
  • Preservatives: Sulfites, nitrates and nitrites for curing meats are considered to be mildly carcinogenic
  • Artificial sweeteners: Aspartame and saccharin have a checkered scientific history as potential carcinogens – there are cleaner alternatives e.g. Stevia
  • Flavour enhancers: Some people have demonstrated high allergic sensitivity to monosodium glutamate

Learn more on the subject of nutrition by studying our online Nutrition for Health and Fitness Certificate.

Enjoy more interesting reads, but visiting the NFE blog archive.












Sleep chronotypes, training adjustments, trackers and more: How do you feel podcast

The author of our Sleep Recovery Specialist course, Ben Pratt, recently featured on the How Do You Feel Podcast, hosted by Casey Zavaleta, from Toronto Canada. Casey asked some great questions that led to a really worthwhile discussion that covered an interesting range of topics surrounding sleep chronotypes, fatigue, exercise and training, stress physiology and much more. Enjoy this audio interview:

In this episode, Ben and Casey discuss the following topics:

  • Why Ben prioritizes sleep above fitness and nutrition
  • How to improve your sleep quality
  • Sleep phases
  • When and how to change your training program if you haven’t slept well
  • How exercise can be detrimental if you haven’t slept enough
  • Stress and sleep
  • How hormones are affected by sleep
  • How sleep affects your appetite and body composition
  • Sleep chronotypes and how to determine yours
  • Differentiating your habits from your chronotype
  • How chronotype changes with age
  • What to do to feel better in the morning
  • Creating a nighttime routine
  • Mind stimulation at night
  • Whether supplemental melatonin is effective or not
  • Oversleeping
  • Repaying sleep debt on the weekend
  • Social jet lag
  • How to get better sleep as a shift worker
  • The accuracy of sleep trackers

Learn more about the Sleep Recovery Specialist Course:

  • Use Code sleepnow10 for a 10% discount on the course!

To enjoy more engaging expert video interviews, please visit our full podcast library.


37 fascinating facts about sleep and health

Sleep and Health, Michael Grandner PhD

Sleep and health book

A few months after the release of our short online course, the Sleep Recovery Specialist, Academic Press published a significant scientific reference book titled Sleep and Health, edited by Michael Grandner PhD. This naturally caught our attention on the subject as previously there has not really been a single book to refer to across such a wide range of important topics related to sleep and human health. We contacted Dr Grandner directly expressing our interest and as a result, we were pleased to be given the opportunity to review the full book. The book has 37 chapters, so it seemed only right to share 37 fascinating facts about sleep, one drawn from each chapter. Here is our book review.

It has been quite a mission to read this 512-page book, but the insights and information contained within have been fascinating! Essentially the book is a compilation of 37 different chapters that have been written by a combined total of 84 different expert authors from around the world. Something that became apparent in our research into the Sleep Recovery Specialist was the extensive volume of scientific research that has been completed on the subject of sleep. It can certainly be overwhelming to trawl through such vast levels of information. Sleep and Health does a superb job of pulling the existing research together into one helpful and well-organized resource. If sleep is a subject that you are keen to have a more in-depth understanding of, then you would do well to turn to the extensive, yet concise bank of knowledge found in Grandner’s book, Sleep and Health.

Asleep with a book - sleep and health

37 fascinating facts about sleep

To be honest, it would be impossible to try and cover the full scope of this book in a single blog post, so perhaps the best way to give you a flavour of what is available to learn is to share a single fact or principle found within each of the 37 individual chapters contained within the book. So, enjoy these 37 fascinating facts about sleep and health:

  1. Sleep need is defined by individual genetics and physiology and does not change after losing a night of sleep or oversleeping on the weekends.
  2. The age-adjusted estimated prevalence of insufficient sleep (≤6 h) was reported to be 35.1% of the US population.
  3. The sex differences in subjective sleep complaints are amplified with ageing, with middle-aged women demonstrating an increased risk of insomnia, poorer sleep quality, and more frequent awakenings, despite reporting earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration compared to men.
  4. Approximately 80% of older adults aged 71 and older had obstructive sleep apnea and the incidence increased 2.2 times for each 10-year increase of age.
  5. Previous studies have shown associations between sleep-related beliefs and sleep health … Those who express generally positive attitudes about sleep are more likely to experience better quality sleep in general.
  6. Most existing data suggest more disruptive and less efficient sleep in lower social-economic status individuals.
  7. Those living in areas that are brighter at night have a later bedtime. Thus, city dwellers often sleep less than their rural counterparts as a result of these physical features of urban neighbourhoods.
  8. Human health can be negatively affected due to inhibited melatonin production because of exposure to bright light at night, especially green and blue spectrum light.
  1. There is a growing body of evidence that the mental engagement (and distraction) that electronic devices provide, may interfere with sleep.
  2. Sleep tracking devices now boast the capability to monitor physiologic data previously unavailable outside the clinic, including movement, respiration, body position, heart rate variability, and even EEG.
  3. There are two recommendations associated with exercise in the context of sleep hygiene: (i) exercise is good for sleep and should be encouraged but (ii) exercise too close to bedtime is detrimental to sleep and should be discouraged.
  4. Objective scientific validation is well behind evaluating sleep tracker technology at the pace in which new technology is introduced to the public. In general, the quality of the data and the consumer usability of the devices are in opposition.
  5. Younger adults were more likely to use mobile phones at night than older adults, and were more likely to have shorter sleep duration, and increased tiredness. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were associated with the use of mobile phones at night.
  6. People’s attitudes about health and their health behaviours do not exist in isolation; they effect, and are affected by, the attitudes and behaviours of others. The more two individuals interact, the greater role this social context will have on their health behaviours.
  7. Late sleepers exhibit a shorter sleep duration, consume more calories at dinner and after 8pm, consume more fast food and full-calorie soda, and have a higher BMI compared to normal sleepers.
  8. A large epidemiologic study on short sleep duration (sleep <6 h) showed an increase in the risk for elevated blood pressure by 8% in a population of 162,121 adult men and women free from major diseases including obesity.
  9. Individuals who report poor sleep quality have a 40% increased likelihood of having diabetes. This risk is comparable with family history, being overweight, and higher than physical inactivity.
  10. Several studies suggest that humans’ metabolic systems do not adapt to disrupted sleep-wake patterns.
  11. Tart cherries have been shown to improve sleep quality and reduce insomnia symptoms. This may be explained, in part, by the rise in circulating melatonin concentrations that occurs after daily ingestion of tart cherry juice.
Tart cherry juice may benefit sleep
  1. Multiple cross-sectional studies have reported that greater sedentary behaviour is associated with lower sleep efficiency, higher daytime sleepiness, and greater odds of having short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and sleep problems.
  2. Binge drinking, of ≥5 standard alcoholic beverages, has been associated with insomnia symptoms in multiple populations, including adolescents, young adults, college students, older adults, Veterans, and firefighters.
  3. Current smokers accrued 24% more stage 1, light sleep, but a significantly lower percentage of stage 3 deep sleep than never smokers; this would indicate shallower, more disturbed sleep.
  4. Those who had a circadian preference for evening time were three times more likely to consume high dose caffeinated energy drinks and report daytime sleepiness compared to those with a preference for morning time.
  5. Accumulating evidence points to the role of short sleep in the development and progression of age-related diseases, many of which include alterations in immune functioning.
  6. Among the most reliable effects of sleep deprivation is the degradation of attention, especially vigilant attention.
  7. In one study, a single night without sleep was associated with fewer creative responses and greater difficulty letting go of unsuccessful strategies.
  8. Bedtime procrastination has been associated with lower overall self-control as well as poorer sleep habits and lower self-reported sleep duration.
  9. Up to 90% of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder experience insomnia. Those with insomnia, compared to those without, are twice as likely to develop depression. These rates have been shown to be 4 times greater in adolescents.
  10. Multiple studies to date suggest a shift toward a predominance of sympathetic (stress) modulation during both wake and night time periods in individuals with chronic insomnia, due to decreased parasympathetic (relaxation) activity that occurs during sleep.
  11. Both dietary weight loss and exercise have been shown to improve and even cure sleep apnea. Avoidance of sedating medications and abstinence from alcohol are encouraged in all patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
  12. Sleep restriction (1.5 h less than habitual sleep duration) in children for 1-week is associated with a significant increase in calorie intake per day as well as alterations to the hunger hormone, leptin.
  13. Among 8–12-year old children, shorter sleep durations are associated with heightened emotional responses, including sadness, anger, fear and disgust.
  14. Contrary to popular belief, adolescents require just as much sleep as they did when they were a few years younger with 9.25h of nightly sleep being considered optimal through the teen years.
  15. Demands from both the work domain and from the family domain can restrict the time available for sleep. Studies describe sleep as the “victim” that suffers due to time-based conflict between work and family roles.
  16. Sleep health is a multidimensional pattern of sleep-wakefulness, adapted to the individual, social, and environmental demands, that promotes physical and mental well-being.
  17. Disruptions during sleep due to sleep apnea can confer symptoms of daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and inability to sustain attention – these deficits are amplified under mundane conditions or while doing overlearned activities that require sustained attention, such as, for example, driving long distances.
  18. There is an epidemic of sleep disorders among police, firefighters, and emergency medical service providers. Efforts to improve sleep have the potential to vastly improve the safety, health, and performance of this vulnerable group, benefiting not only them but the public that they serve.

Find out more about sleep and health book

If you enjoyed these 37 fascinating facts about sleep, one from each of the chapters in Sleep and Health, and are really looking to study the deeper details on the subject, then please find out more about the book by visiting the publisher’s page at Academic Press, or by visiting the Amazon page. The purchase price is quite high, even for an academic book, although the level of knowledge and detail provided is probably a fair reward for the cost invested.

Find out more: Sleep Recovery Specialist course


Sleep is so integral to the goals of health and fitness professionals, both personally and for their clients, that we decided to create an online course targeted specifically to personal trainers, fitness instructors, strength coaches, sports specific trainers, and fitness professionals more broadly. This course has many, many more fascinating facts about sleep, health and exercise that makes it well worth completing! We invite you to find out more about our innovative online course, the Sleep Recovery Specialist.

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